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Walking and cycling: What to Promote Where

Walking and cycling need to be planned together with motorised modes. Given that the number of trips which people make, and the time they spend making them are more or less constant, encouraging one mode will be at the expense of another. If the aim is more sustainable travel patterns, then reduced car use must go alongside the planned encouragement of other modes.

Walking and cycling are not always compatible modes. There is little point in encouraging cycling if it leads only to less walking. Also, cyclists and pedestrians do not always coexist on the same space. Shared spaces tend only to work where there are low speeds or low densities. If cycle tracks or lanes are to be provided, this should be at the expense of space for cars, not people on foot.

Priorities for the encouragement of different modes should vary according to what works best in different types of area. This will depend partly on trip patterns and partly on the physical structure of the area. 

A suggested rule of thumb is shown in the linked pdf.

Chapter TitleWalking and cycling: What to Promote Where
Chapter AuthorTim Pharoah
Book TitleSustainable transport: planning for walking and cycling in urban environments
Book AuthorRodney Tolley (ed)
PublisherWoodhead Publications Cambridge 2003