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Traffic calming 1990

Traffic calming schemes from The Netherlands, West Germany and the UK up to 1990. Traffic Calming is the design and redesign of streets which emphasises safety and environmental objectives rather than provision for motor traffic. Page numbers refer to "Traffic Calming: Policy and Evaluations in Three European Countries", Tim Pharoah and John Russell, 1989 (see publications section) Photos 1-10 - Slow speed areas; Photos 11-20 - 30kmph (20mph) zones; Photos 21-30 - Urban main roads; Photos 31-40 - Village through roads;

1. Delft (Netherlands): One of the first Woonerf schemes, early 1970s. (Woonerf = residential compound or yard) The original Woonerf sign was required at the entrance to each designated area to indicate a change of traffic rules and expected behaviour. Shared surface (no distinction between footway and carriageway), repaved; planted areas used for narrrowing and shifts of horizontal axis to ensure slow speeds. Legal maximum speed

1. Delft (Netherlands): One of the …

2. Woonerf design model widely copied, in the UK mainly in new housing development culs-de-sac, as in this example in Westminster, London However, design not reinforced with change of traffic rules. Note

2. Woonerf design model widely copi…

3. Den Haag (Netherlands) national demonstration project, Rijswijk district. Shared space principle applied in shopping area (shop = winkel, hence

3. Den Haag (Netherlands) national …

4. Borgentreich (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany) Federal demonstration project. Shared surface principle applied in small village street (not through road) with mixed residential, shopping and commercial uses. (p 16)

4. Borgentreich (Nordrhein-Westfale…

5. Cologne (Germany) German equivalent of the Dutch Woonerf was developed in the 1970s with the sign shown in this example. This sign was adopted by several European countries to denote slow-speed (10 kmph or less) areas. In 1988

5. Cologne (Germany) German equival…

6. Berlin Moabit Federal demonstration project, inner city district. Low cost scheme successful in reducing injury accidents, noise and fumes. Extensive tree and shrub planting reinforces slow driving speeds by reducing the

6. Berlin Moabit Federal demonstrat…

7. Berlin Moabit speed cushion (Berliner kissen). These together with ramped junctions placed to provide frequent speed reducing measures, mostly no more than 50 metres apart. This ensures calm style of driving with speeds of 15-25 kmph. Designed to allow free passage of cycles. (Later examples elsewhere designed to reduce impact on buses). Shape has been described as a

7. Berlin Moabit speed cushion (Ber…

8. Berlin Charlottenburg: carriageway raised to footway level at crossroads. Smooth slab paving for pedestrians continued accross the junction. Granite setts for carriageway.

8. Berlin Charlottenburg: carriagew…

9. Cologne (Germany) slow speed allows space to be converted from carriageway to other uses, as in this example of a play and rest area outside a crossroads cafe. Materials and street furniture designed to complement townscape, and planting introduced. Note absence of traffic signs and road markings which are not needed in slow speed areas.

9. Cologne (Germany) slow speed all…

10. Cologne Nippes district

10. Cologne Nippes district "state …

11. Bethnal Green (London) Not a 20 mph zone as such but an example of speed humps UK (London) style which are generally effective in limiting speeds at the humps to about 30 kmph or 20 miles per hour. However, the character of the street is unchanged. The use of signs, road markings pedestrian guard rails etc still conveys the impression of a traffic priority street. Drivers therefore tend to resent humps as obstructions. No advice is given on the appropriate speed. The legal limit remains at 30 mph even though it is no longer possible to negotiate the street at this speed. In this example, humps are located away from the zebra crossing (to comply with Department of Transport regulations) so speeds are highest where pedestrians cross! Guard rails compel pedestrians to cross at the zebra.

11. Bethnal Green (London) Not a 20…

12. Zuidlaren (Near Groningen, Netherlands), national 30 kmph zone demonstration project. Gate effect at entrance to 30 kmph area created by sign and narrowed section with planter, bollard and hump with

12. Zuidlaren (Near Groningen, Neth…

13. Zuidlaren. Circular hump at crossroads, conventional Dutch

13. Zuidlaren. Circular hump at cro…

14. Nijmegan (Netherlands) Late 1980s 30 kmph zone. Measures more simple and therefore cheaper than Woonerf schemes which are now rarely applied in Nijmegan. Ramped junction to provide level footway crossing. Simple bollards and tree planting define the vehicle path. Corner footway built out to reduce crossing distance, and to define parking area. Dropped kerb provided where footway not ramped. Note that the brick-paved main carriageway area was pre-existing.

14. Nijmegan (Netherlands) Late 198…

15. Zuidwolde (Near Zwolle, Netherlands) national demonstration 30 kmph zone project. Low density housing area in large village. New kerb layed out to tighten bend at junction. Area planted with tree and ground cover plants rather than paved. Cheap to implement and also provides space between pedestrians and vehicles. (p11)

15. Zuidwolde (Near Zwolle, Netherl…

16. Bonn (Germany) Innercity one-way street with bus route. Speed reduction by simple but pronounced chicane created by alternate angled parking areas defined by effective though not very attractive planters. To reduce speeds to 30 kmph, chicanes must create a horizontal shift at least equal to the carriageway width, as in this example. Cheap to implement. A further safety advantage of one side parking is that one footway is clearly visible to drivers, thus reducing by 50% the problem of pedestrians being obscured by parked vehicles.

16. Bonn (Germany) Innercity one-wa…

17. Heerde (Near Zwolle, Netherlands) national 30 zone demonstration project in low density housing area where through traffic now discouraged with frequent speed reduction measures. Slide shows offset crossroads with raised carriageway

17. Heerde (Near Zwolle, Netherland…

18. Eindhoven (Netherlands) national area-wide demonstration project. 30 kmh speeds achieved using humps (foreground) and narrow (approx 4 metres) main carriageway in rough granite setts. Occasional strips either side in smoother materials used by cycles and occasional large vehicles. (p 9, 10, 25, 31, 32,47,53)

18. Eindhoven (Netherlands) nationa…

19. Buxtehude (Near Hamburg, Germany) Federal demonstration project. Ramped

19. Buxtehude (Near Hamburg, German…

20. Buxtehude (near Hamburg, Germany) Speed reduction measures combined to produce calm and steady driving of around 31-33 kmph. Ramped plateau, slight chicanes, changes in surface colour and texture at measures, reduced optical width using tree planting. Driving with low engine speeds in 3rd gear has resulted in reductions of exhaust gases of up to 50%, and noise reduction of 4-5 dbA equivalent to a halving of traffic volume. (p16,39,45,48,56).

20. Buxtehude (near Hamburg, German…

21. Buxtehude (Near Hamburg, Germany) Federal demonstration project. Bahnhofstrasse is a main street within the 30 kmph area. Moderate driving speeds due to narrow carriageway (6 metres, no centre line, plus narrow strips 0.25m each side) and

21. Buxtehude (Near Hamburg, German…

22. Camden (north London) one-way main radial route into central London reduced from 4 to 2 lanes (except at key junctions). Footways extended at light controlled crossings to provide shorter crossing distance. Dropped kerbs at crossings with tactile paving as warning to blind and partially sighted. Defined parking bays away from junctions to improve visibility. Normal 30 miles per hour limit, but not self-enforcing. Taken in 1986.

22. Camden (north London) one-way m…

23. Wandsworth (South West London) Radial route with narrowed carriageway. Slide shows footway extension at side road junction with cast iron bollards to prevent pavement parking, defined parking bays. Ramped side road to slow speed of turning traffic, and to provide level crossing facility for pedestrians. Taken in 1990.

23. Wandsworth (South West London) …

24. Mainz (Germany) Bretzenheim district Federal demonstration project. 50 kmph limit enforced on suburban main distributor road by creation of double two-way chicane with alternate side and central islands. Separate cycle lanes avoiding chicanes (one on former carriageway, the other on former footway) allow narrower driving lanes without danger to cyclists. Conventional traffic engineering signs and equipment still gives impression of traffic priority. (p16)

24. Mainz (Germany) Bretzenheim dis…

25. Mainz Neustadt, old inner city district, speed moderated by division of carriageway with large planted central island which limits long forward views and creates chicanes. Island also prevents former cross-traffic movements at this point.

25. Mainz Neustadt, old inner city …

26. Cologne (Germany) Kalker Strasse, former main radial route into city also serving as important shopping and community focus, formerly with trams (now underground). Space reallocated to provide wider pedestrian areas, especially at light controlled pedestrian crossings. Novel arrangement of

26. Cologne (Germany) Kalker Strass…

27. Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany) Major central city road converted to pedestrian piazza, with (one way) traffic confined to two lanes on east side.

27. Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany) Maj…

28. Eindhoven (Netherlands) national area-wide demonstration project. Leenderweg, main radial route through suburban centre with bus route. Former 16 metre carriageway reduced to 6.5 metres. Space used to provide

28. Eindhoven (Netherlands) nationa…

29. Eindhoven outer ring road (south). Dual 2-lane carriageway converted to dual 1-lane. Space reallocated to linear parking lane (for residents' cars), narrow main driving lane, and generous cycle lane/ occasional strip. Speed moderated by fact that large vehicles cannot pass cyclists and are thus limited to cyclist's speed, which in turn limits speed of entire platoon. This arrangement applies for about 400 metres. (pp 9,10,25,31,32,47)

29. Eindhoven outer ring road (sout…

30. Eindhoven outer ring road. Former dual carriageway converted to single (two-way) 6 metre carriageway, separate cycleway through planted area and (just visible bottom left corner) woonerf style service and access road for adjacent housing area. As a result, through traffic is now 70 metres further away from housing than before. This arrangement applies for about 600 metres.(pp 9,10,25,31,32,47)

30. Eindhoven outer ring road. Form…

31. Zuidlaren (Near Groningen, Netherlands) Gate effect at through road entrance to village and change from 80 to 50 kmph.

31. Zuidlaren (Near Groningen, Neth…

32. Borgentreich (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany) Federal demonstration project. Village entrance/ exit with

32. Borgentreich (Nordrhein-Westfal…

33. Borgentreich main village street and through road. Optical width reduced with tree planting, and with apparent width of carriageway reduced by the use of occasional strips in darker colour. Measures not sufficiently strong, however, to produce more than a small reduction in traffic speeds. Further narrowing was prevented by farmers' concerns about the movement of outsize farm machinery. Note absence of kerbs: unsatisfactory given traffic speeds often in excess of 50 kmph. (pp 16,42,56)

33. Borgentreich main village stree…

34. Borgentreich local village lane. Width and level of side areas (not intended as formal footways) varies according to height and position of buildings, doorways and side access ways, in keeping with informal village character.

34. Borgentreich local village lane…

35. Soest (East of Dortmund, Germany) Centre of large village repaved as pedestrian area (some service traffic allowed). Paving colour in sympathy with building colour, and patterned to break up an otherwise large expanse resulting from kerb removal.

35. Soest (East of Dortmund, German…

36. Much (East of Cologne, Germany) National (Federal) road passing through village carrying 6,000 vehicles per day of which 6-9% heavy vehicles. No by-pass is planned. At village centre with shops space between buildings is as little as 7 metres. Over this stretch, the carriageway has been narrowed to 4.5 metres (the narrowest on any Federal road). Two cars can pass, but large vehicles must wait for other vehicles to clear before passing through. Sight lines are arranged to enable this to happen. The low stone walls are an integral design feature of the village scheme.

36. Much (East of Cologne, Germany)…

37. Bergisch Gladbach (near Cologne, Germany) Through road narrowed where pedestrian area crosses at light-controlled crossing. General traffic queues in centre lane (foreground) while buses gain priority through the signal at green.

37. Bergisch Gladbach (near Cologne…

38. Lunen (near Dortmund, Germany) Through road in

38. Lunen (near Dortmund, Germany) …

39. Albachten (near Munster, Germany) Village through road with 50 kmph speed limit. Footway built out to edge of main carriageway at bus stop. When bus is stopped, other traffic must wait behind. Note also defined parking bays either side and cycle lane in red brick. This and the photo of Dulmen Buldern show examples of a series of treatments on the national (Federal) road No 51 between Munster and Bochum.

39. Albachten (near Munster, German…

40. Dulmen Buldern (Germany). Village centre traffic speed moderated using wide central island to create

40. Dulmen Buldern (Germany). Villa…

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